Ethics and Malpractice Policy

Ethical responsibilities of authors

The Malaysian Journal of Ophthalmology (MyJO) has a basic commitment of upholding the integrity of the scientific record. In doing this, MyJO will follow the COPE guidelines on how to deal with any real or potential actions of misconduct. It is the responsibility of the authors to ensure that: 

Authors must adhere to the Uniform Requirements set by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors ( for authorship. Each author must meet the criteria for authorship, which include all the following points:

Plagiarism and fraud

Plagiarism occurs whenever the authors of a submitted manuscript present the work of others as if it was their own without full acknowledgment. Plagiarism includes copying the entire body of a previously published work, and/or significant portions of it, without due acknowledgment. Authors are required to ensure:

Ethical misconduct

In case of suspected misconduct, the MyJO Editor-in-Chief will initiate appropriate procedures as detailed by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), available here

Should the investigation validate concerns raised in the allegation, the accused author will be contacted and given an opportunity to address the issue. If misconduct has been established beyond reasonable doubt, this may result in the implementation by the MyJO Editor-in-Chief of the following measures, including, but not limited to:

MyJO may elect to publish an expression of concern pending the outcomes of investigation as detailed by COPE. If the procedures involve an investigation at the authors’ institution, MYJO may seek to discover the outcome of that investigation and notify readers of the outcome if appropriate. If the investigation proves scientific misconduct, MyJO will publish a retraction of the article. There may be circumstances in which no misconduct is proven, but an exchange of letters to the editor may still be published to highlight matters of debate to our readers.

Research involving human subjects and/or animals

It is responsibility of the authors to ensure that:

Such patient consents will be written and archived by MyJO.


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  2. Alpins NA. Vector analysis for astigmatism changes by flattening, steepening and torque. J Cataract Refract Surg 1997;23:1503-1514.
  3. Alpins NA. A method of analyzing vectors for changes in astigmatism. J Cataract Refract Surg 1993;19:524-533.